Botswana Profile and history


Botswana formally called as the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked nation situated in Southern part of Africa. Its people are called as “Batswana”. Previously it is Bechuanaland’s British protectorate. After gaining Independence inside the commonwealth, it derived its present name on 30th September 1966. Eversince its Independence, the elections are regularly conducted in a free and fair manner.

Botswana is basically a plane country, with seventy percent of its land mass occupied by the Kalahari Desert. In the south and southeastern direction it is bordered by South Africa, in west and north by Namibia, in the north east by Zimbabwe, in the north it is scantily bordered by Zambia only to a small distance of a few kilometers.

Fundamentally it is a medium sized nation, has a sparse a population of more than two million citizens. When it got Independence from the British in the year 1996, it is one of Africa’s weakest countries having a poor GDP per Capita of just USD$70. Botswana has now altered into a rapid growing country on the globe with a procuring uniformity power (GDP) per captia of almost $14,000. It also has an affluent custom of representative democracy.

Capital: Gaborone

Independence: obtained from the British on 30th September 1966.

Language: official languages arevEnglish, Setswana

Currency: Pula (BWP)

Religion: Christians, Methodists, Anglicans form seventy percent of the population. Other religions are the Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Baptists, Seventh day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Mennonites.


During the nineteenth century, resentments broke amid Botswana’s Tswana and natives and Ndebele clans, who from the north eastern direction made invasion into the region. Starting from Transvaal up to the east, pressure mounted with the settlers of Boer. Subsequent to pleas for help from the leaders of Batswana, Khama III, Sebele, and Bathoen, the British Government, brought "Bechuanaland" under its security on 31st March 1885. The northern region continued to remain under its direct supervision as protectorate of Bechuanaland, which is the present day Botswana, whilst the southern region formed portions of Cape colony and at present is a portion of South Africa’ northwest territory. At present a bulk of Setswana-speaking group exist in South Africa.

In 1910, when the Union of South Africa was created, the major British colonies in the territory Swaziland (the “High Commission Territories”), the protectorate of Bechuanaland and Basutoland (presently Lesotho) were not added, however terms were made for future integration. In 1948, the Nationalist government was elected, which introduced apartheid and in 1961, the withdrawal of South Africa from common wealth, put an end to any hope of territory integration into South Africa.

The British governamt in 1964, acknowledged a suggestion for setting up a self government in Botswana. The seat of power was shifted from South Africa’s Mafikeng city to Gaborone, the biggest city in Botswana. The constitution of 1965 facilitated the holding of the first general elections and gaining of Independence in 30th September 1966.

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